Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Iranians experienced multiple Internet disruptions over a 12-day period in September 2022, following the death of a young woman in police custody, which sparked protests across the country. Starting on 21 September, wide-scale disruptions were observed on mobile Internet providers’ networks with shutdowns occurring daily from noon to well into the evening.
Access to a range of services and applications were blocked, including communication services WhatsApp, LinkedIn, Skype, and Instagram. Access to the Google Play Store and Apple App Store was limited in an attempt to hinder people from downloading Virtual Private Network (VPN) apps, which can help users circumvent blocking.
The Open Observatory of Network Interference (OONI), which monitors global Internet censorship, reported an increase in incidents of blocking of DNS over HTTPS (DoH). DoH enables Internet users to bypass Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and government-controlled domain name services, helping them to avoid simple forms of blocking so they can stay online.
Iranian officials stated that access to the Internet would be restricted until protests ceased.
There has been significant attention to Iran's internet blackouts.
Time to dig into what's happening inside Iran, and whether outsiders can help. What I found was surprisingly chaotic, nightmarish.
— cda (@CDA) October 5, 2022
— Internet Outage Alerts (@gatech_ioda) September 26, 2022
According to @kentikinc aggregate NetFlow, traffic volumes to Irancell (AS44244), MCI (197207) and Rightel (AS57218) fell off within minutes of each other just over an hour ago. pic.twitter.com/9gtgrH8dWs
— Doug Madory (@DougMadory) September 23, 2022
The Iranian government has shut down mobile Internet providers and blocked access to Instagram and WhatsApp in response to recent protests. Learn more about the impact of these actions as seen through @CloudflareRadar data. https://t.co/7YkiU63WDj
— Cloudflare (@Cloudflare) September 22, 2022